Emergency Management



Surface Obs


Surface temp, dewpoint, and MSLP

925 mb

850 mb

500 mb / vorticity advection

300 mb

Mid level lapse rate

Low level lapse rate

0-6 km shear

Effective shear

Most-unstable CAPE

Mixed layer (100 mb) CAPE and CIN

0-1 km shear

0-1 km SRH

Hail Parameters: -10 to -30C CAPE
Greater CAPE in this layer indicates a "fat" CAPE and potentially vigorous updrafts.

Supercell Composite Parameter
Depends on MUCAPE, SRH, and shear. Higher values favor right-moving supercells.

Vorticity Generation Parameter
Values greater than 0.2 m/s**2 suggest an increasing possibility of tornadic storms.

Energy Helicity Index
0-1-km EHI values greater than 1-2 have been associated with significant tornadoes in supercells.

Surface-2km SR Wind

0-3 km lapse rate and 0-3 km CAPE

LCL height
Significant tornadoes are more favorable with low LCLs, below 1 km.

Bulk Richardson Number
Incorporates MLCAPE and vertical shear. Values of 10-45 have been associated with supercells in simulations.

Moisture convergence

Surface theta-e advection

Significant Tornado Parameter
A majority of sig tornadoes (F2 or greater) have been associated with STP values greater than 1.

Downdraft CAPE
Large DCAPE = stronger downdrafts.

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